Carol Dweck and her colleagues developed an interest in the students’ perspectives on failing over a period of more than three decades. They observed that some kids were able to recover from even the most minor of setbacks, while other pupils appeared to be completely crushed by even the most minor of setbacks. Dr. Carol Dweck, who conducted research on the behaviour of thousands of youngsters, came up with the concepts of a “fixed mentality” and a “growth mindset” to define the fundamental ideas that people hold about their capacity for learning and intellect. When pupils have the mindset that they can improve their intelligence via hard work, they have a better understanding of how this works. Because of this, individuals spend more time and effort than necessary, which ultimately results in more performance.
Recent discoveries in the field of neuroscience have shown us that the human brain is considerably more adaptable than we previously believed. Research on brain plasticity has proven that the connectivity between neurons can alter depending on the experiences that a person has. Through repeated use, neural networks are able to form new connections, improve the strength of existing connections, and construct insulation, all of which serve to accelerate the transmission of impulses. These discoveries in neuroscientific research have taught us that the actions we perform, such as employing effective methods, inquiring about new topics, practising, and adhering to healthy dietary and sleeping patterns, can all contribute to an expansion in the size of our brain networks.
Researchers started getting a grasp on the connection between having the right mindset and being successful at about the same time as neuroscientific discoveries were beginning to gain ground. It has been discovered that people act differently if they have the belief that their brains can continue to develop. Therefore, the researchers posed the question, “Is it possible to alter mindsets? If that’s the case, how?” This marked the beginning of a series of treatments and research that demonstrate that it is actually possible to transform a person’s attitude from one of fixed to one of growth and that when this is accomplished, it results in enhanced motivation and achievement. For instance, seventh graders who were taught that intellect can be changed and shown how the brain expands with effort showed a clear boost in their math grades. This was because they were told that intelligence can be changed.
The feedback that teachers give their students can either encourage a child to choose a challenge and increase achievement or look for an easy way out. In addition to teaching children about malleable intelligence, researchers began to notice that teacher practice has a significant impact on student mindset. For instance, studies on the many forms of praise have shown that telling youngsters they are brilliant supports a fixed attitude, but studies on the various forms of praise have shown that applauding hard work and effort cultivates a growth mindset. Students that have a growth mindset approach problems as opportunities for learning, which leads to an increase in their capabilities as well as their level of achievement.
Let’s take a deeper look at the science behind the Growth Mindset
A growth mindset is a view that intelligence is flexible and can be enhanced. Students with a growth mindset are more likely to adopt a mastery-based learning strategy, welcome obstacles, and exert effort to learn. For example, persons with a growth mindset view task setbacks as a necessary part of the learning process and “bounce back” by increasing their motivating effort.
Recent research on elementary kids demonstrated that using an online educational game with in-game prizes can foster a growth attitude by directly motivating effort and fostering persistence among low-performing students. Growth-minded learners tend to embrace lifelong learning and the delight of incremental personal development. Moreover, they do not view their IQ or personality as fixed characteristics. They will deploy their learning resources without allowing the possibility of failure to deter them. This study intends to shed light on the cultivation of resilience and mastery in college students, thereby preparing them to face obstacles in the actual world of employment.
The growth mindset has positive benefits on student motivation and academic achievement, according to empirical research. Recent research has also demonstrated that student outcomes and behaviours, such as academic achievement, engagement, and desire to attempt new challenges, are associated to attitude.
Numerous studies have demonstrated the positive impact of growth mindset treatments on the achievement of students of all ages. According to Dweck, educating pupils in junior high school with a growth mindset raised their motivation and improved their academic performance. Her findings demonstrated that students in the growth mindset intervention group outperformed those in the control group (who received superior study skills training), demonstrating enhanced learning and a desire to work hard.
The intervention on development mindset educates pupils that IQ is not a fixed trait. Intelligence can be fostered through difficult jobs, as intelligence grows through arduous effort on difficult challenges. An intervention emphasising a growth mindset had a significant influence on student achievements in topics such as science and mathematics.
A person with a growth mentality works hard and improves without expecting an incentive return as a result. The growth mentality is conceptualised similarly to intrinsic motivation. A student with a growth mindset has the ability to self-regulate their learning and manage academic tasks. Consequently, fostering a growth attitude can enhance the academic performance of college students and middle school math students.
The majority of the preceding empirical investigations reported the usefulness of questionnaires or self-report measures. Neuroscientific research on the neural mechanism of development mindset is still in its infancy. It is vital, therefore, to study data from other sources, such as neuroscientific knowledge regarding how the brain develops as a result of learning experience and how this relates to a growth mindset. The parts that follow will explore the neuroscientific evidence for a growth mindset.
The Role Intrinsic Motivation Plays
Intrinsic motivation is innate, as it determines the behaviour and self-determination of an individual. Self-determination is essential for the evolution of organisms to become more efficient and refined in their reflection on continuing experiences. When pupils experience intrinsic satisfaction from an activity, they will demonstrate intrinsic motivation. Students are extrinsically driven if they engage in an activity to receive an external benefit, such as good grades or social acclaim. The choice, effort, and persistence of students in academic assignments are strongly proportional to their level of intrinsic motivation.
Numerous research has investigated the effects of intrinsic drive, including the adaptive repercussions for individuals, such as exposing them to unfamiliar situations and improving their different competencies to deal with the unexpected. Moreover, intrinsic motivation is the predisposition of individuals to learn about new subjects and to distinguish their interests, thereby generating a sense of purpose and meaning. Recent empirical research has demonstrated that intrinsic motivation is a crucial element in academic accomplishment and the pursuit of interests, hence facilitating learning and development.
Dopamine is the most abundant neurotransmitter in the brain and helps regulate reward and pleasure centres, as well as motivated and emotional behaviour. Excited by unanticipated reward events, dopamine neurones project to the striatum, brain, limbic system, and hypothalamus, hence influencing physiological functioning and motivated actions. Dopamine is regarded as a fundamental substrate of intrinsic motivation, hence enhancing attention and behavioural engagement.
During a free-choice time period or a self-determined choice condition, for instance, individuals were likely to engage in the task voluntarily. These consistent findings show that perceived autonomy support improves intrinsic motivation by enhancing dopaminergic value system activity. Consequently, learning is a neurological process that involves the reinforcement of synaptic function and is heavily influenced by dopamine and attentional gain in the frontal cortex. Additionally, the positive and negative affect will improve or lessen the learner’s intrinsic motivation in a certain subject, so changing their attitude towards that subject.
In recent decades, behavioural data has demonstrated the significance of intrinsic motivation and its effect on learning. However, our understanding of the mechanism behind intrinsic motivation is still in its infancy, and it is unclear how an individual’s intrinsic drive develops or changes over time. To establish the mechanism of intrinsic motivation at a granular level, additional data is required.
Complementing the existing behavioural research, the recommendation is to integrate neuroscientific evidence to track and comprehend which parts of an individual’s learning progression determine intrinsic motivation. A strategy of the neuroscience method is to promote intrinsically motivated behaviours based on task complexity in a variety of circumstances, thus addressing intrinsic motivation through various forms of exploration.